The Principles Of Low Stress
Restraint For Pigs

  1. Solid sides or barriers around the pigs to prevent them from seeing people deep inside their flight zones. This is especially important for wild or excitable pigs.

  2. Provide non-slip flooring for all species of animals.

    This is a picture of a Herringbone stockyard or lairage for pigs that illustrates an ideal flooring situation.

  3. Slow steady motion of a restraint device is calming, while sudden jerky motion excite.

  4. Use the concept of optimal pressure. Sufficient pressure must be applied to provide the feeling of restraint, but excessive pressure that causes pain or discomfort must be avoided.

  5. The entrance of the restraint device must be well lighted, however, lamps must not glare into the eyes of approaching animals. All species must be able to see a place to go.

  6. Livestock will remain calmer if they can see other animals within touching distance.

    Pigs move more easily through a ramp where they are side by side. The outer sides of the ramp are solid and the middle partition is "see though" to promote following behaviour.

  7. Engineer equipment to minimize noise. High pitched noise is more disturbing to livestock than a low pitched rumble.

  8. Restraint devices must be designed to avoid uncomfortable pressure points on the animal's body.

  9. Restrain livestock in an upright position.

References :

Grandin, T.(1994)
Methods to reduce PSE and bloodsplash
Allen D. Leman Swine Conference Volume 21 pages 206-209
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota

Grandin, T. 1995

Restraint of Livestock
Proceedings of Animal Behaviour, Design of Livestock and Poultry Systems International Conference.(pages 208-223)
Published by: Northeast Regional Agriculture Engineering Service,
Cooperative Extension 152 Riley - Robb Hall
Ithaca, New York, 14853 USA

Grandin, T. (Editor) 1993

Livestock Handling and Transport.
CAB International, Wallingford Oxon, United Kingdom

Grandin, T. 1988

Double Rail Restrainer For Livestock Handling
Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 41:327-338